4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

glegrady
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4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by glegrady » Tue Oct 19, 2010 2:42 am

The article by Gabriele Peters is a typical example of how the scientific and engineering world writes papers. This approach seemed alien to me at first in comparison to art or academic reviews, but I like it now as I have become familiar with its standardized form.

The article discusses six dimensions of visual aesthetics in the photograph. Discuss some aspect of the article giving examples from other sources.
George Legrady
legrady@mat.ucsb.edu

amirzaian
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Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by amirzaian » Tue Oct 19, 2010 4:38 pm

The article “Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization” discussed six dimensions of visual aesthetics with in the photograph. The types of visual aesthetics dimensions were color, form, spatial organization, motion, depth, and human body. The specific dimension of an image, which I was interested in was Spatial Organization. According to Gabriele Peters the "spatial organization of image elements should be clear and simple; apply the rule of the golden mean; attain a wholistic impression by textures and patterns; apply variations to patterns and take care for the visual rhythm induced by repetition of elements.” The theory of the Golden Ration or mean was the main idea, which I was intrigued by. In the article the elements of texture and pattern were presented though the patterns found in nature. This is also the case with the Fibonacci sequence. The Fibonacci Sequence is a sequence of numbers, which creates most of the patterns we find fascinating in nature. The sequence of numbers is arranged in this order 1,2,3,5,8…etc where each following number is the sum of the previous two. Several examples include the spirals found in shells, galaxies, and flowering plants. Although we find these patterns aesthetically pleasing, “it is an open question as to why patterns evoke aesthetic feelings in humans, but our visual system seems to look for patterns in visual stimuli even if they are actually not present.”
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rzant
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by rzant » Wed Oct 20, 2010 6:31 pm

In reading the article “Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization”, I found that one of the most interesting concepts was ‘the golden mean’. The golden mean is a mathematical equation that explains how one part ‘a’, when added to a second part, ‘b’, should be equal to the sum of ‘a+b’. This simplified version, when extrapolated, becomes a much more complex system known as the Fibonacci sequence. The author of the article goes on to explain this mathematical concept in its relation to visual arts.

Primarily, I think this concept is interesting because rarely are artists exposed to hard science that may exist behind any given artwork. Usually, issues of form, color, composition, and relevance to art history are discussed and deemed relevant to the work itself. However, in this article, Peters is able to give us a concrete basis upon which to view art from, in using the golden mean. The article explains that “a division of a line, surface, or volume in the ratio of about 3:5 appears harmonic”. Peters holds that this is because this ratio is often found in natural forms, like seashells, along with human proportions.

Ultimately, I think it’s fascinating that there is a reason behind the things we find aesthetically pleasing. Because of the fact that many things within our immediate world are based upon this ratio, we are ingrained to find it ‘normal’ or easy to look at. Undoubtedly, many of us may not have been aware of this mathematical explanation regarding aesthetics until recently, and yet, we may have felt that a particular composition was ‘off’ due to compositional issues – perhaps a photograph taken with the horizon line too high, or a broad element that creates too much of an unbalance within a work. Now we know, this may have been due to the fact that the 3:5 ratio was not adhered to.
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Sarah
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by Sarah » Wed Oct 20, 2010 7:57 pm

MY THOUGHTS:
Out of the six dimensions Gabriele Peters mentions in "Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization", I find the discussion on Color extraordinarily fascinating. He first starts to speak of what part color plays on a more general sense for images, such as, "Two to three strong colors usually are the maximum for an image still to be pleasant to the eyes. If more than a few strong colors occur in an image usually the effect of beauty is lost." In all my study of photography and image making I never payed much attention to the detail of color. To see such a rule of how many strong colors must be used in order to create a dynamic image is not only new to me but makes perfect sense. Color is just as important as composition and subject matter (in his words, color should correlate with its content). If you cannot manage color effectively; knowing what colors work well together, using a majority of one to create a tone and then using small amounts of others as boosters for a dynamic range, then your image will hold no weight in the vast world of images.

He then explains how our own eyes actually perceive color. Technology such as computer screens (1:1000) and prints (1:250) cannot possibly have the same dynamic range as our own eyes "that is indicated between 1:1000 and 1:10000." This distinction means a lot to our everyday viewing of images and to our own awareness of what we create and release into the world. The images we create must also follow certain codes such as having full tonal range in order to create an aesthetic appeal to the viewers. In addition we must learn how to properly "distribute the tonal values in a well balanced manner".

Last but certainly not least, he gives us ways in which we can increase our dynamic ranges within images. The more intriguing of the two is the use of HDR, High Dynamic Range imaging. It allows the photographer to combine many resolutions of the same content and overlap them in order to create a well balanced composite of colors, contrast, details and tones, which, what Peters says creates a very aesthetically pleasing image.

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IN REPLY TO RZANT:
You mention, "rarely are artists exposed to hard science that may exist behind any given artwork." And in a more general sense I agree. However, in the current art world, science and art are becoming two cohesive wholes. More and more are scientists and artists teaming up to create outrageous and spectacular pieces of work. For example, Daniel Rozin, like many others, uses a mathematical system to create a series of wooden blocks to move in different ways to create a mirror effect of the person standing in front of the unit. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZysu9QcceM
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Sarah
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by Sarah » Wed Oct 20, 2010 7:59 pm

glegrady wrote:The article by Gabriele Peters is a typical example of how the scientific and engineering world writes papers. This approach seemed alien to me at first in comparison to art or academic reviews, but I like it now as I have become familiar with its standardized form.

The article discusses six dimensions of visual aesthetics in the photograph. Discuss some aspect of the article giving examples from other sources.

RebeccaW
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tonal range

Post by RebeccaW » Wed Oct 20, 2010 8:51 pm

This article is very strange to me, being a psychology major. Usually when I read articles in this scientific format it has some scientific evidence supporting it. I would have liked to know a little more about the scientific evidence placing the brain structures that judge paintings in the cerebral cortex. Although these facts about artistic parts of the brain are new and interesting to me it is hard to tell how much weight it can hold.

Not only is what Gabriele Peter says about color interesting, but so is what he says about the tonal values in an image. Looking at the examples given in this article for the perfect range of tone, I realize that I have never really noticed the specific distribution that Peter mentions. Peter states that an aesthetic image must have a full range of tonal value and that range must have a well-balanced distribution. The reason for this is that is what Sarah was saying about the way in which the eye works. According to Peter we only like images that speak to way we process them. This tonal goal can also be reached with the use of HDR imaging.

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BritRollins
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by BritRollins » Wed Oct 20, 2010 9:37 pm

interesting pictures - wind skirt.jpg
mimitw.jpg
“We look for patterns even if they are not present”, because our brain wants to make sense of everything, this is common sense. The introduction explains that the reason for the article is to offer people within the area of science and technology some sort of a formula to analyzing a digital image in terms of its aesthetics. I feel as if that is in a way defeating the purpose of aesthetics and maybe even moreover art. Aesthetics to me and art is meant to be something that is enjoyable to look at, and the better the art or the more aesthetically pleasing the piece the longer the audience wishes to view it. Isn’t that the underlying goal of art? Yes, many artists do strive to create work that compels the audience to think different or to persuade them on some sort of issue but why a formula to do this? Leave it to scientist to make every aspect of life complicated. I don’t believe that “hard science” and “art” belong in the same sentence. Anyone can look at a work of art and tell if the color or the form is something that is aesthetically pleasing. I enjoyed Barthes’ break down of an image more, I thought that the structure he set up for analyzing digital images made more sense and didn’t have as much fluff. It shouldn’t take a scientist to fully understand an image.

amandaziegler
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by amandaziegler » Wed Oct 20, 2010 10:35 pm

In Gabriele Peters, “Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization,” his discussion about color intrigued me the most. Like Sarah, I found that his analysis of creating a dynamic image was interesting because he discussed three different properties displaying how a color plays a role in the construction of aesthetics. Sarah discussed his first property of color, which he states as “the use of only a few strong colors within an image.” This was intriguing to me as well because I feel like I have subconsciously acknowledged this property when looking at different images and paintings, but I have never thought about this property of only using a few strong colors in more depth. Now, looking at successful images I notice that the images are not overwhelming with too much color. When an image has an exceptional distribution of tonal values, and is then complemented with the use of a few strong colors, I like Peters, find that the image remains more beautiful than if many strong colors are used. When many strong colors are used, the content of the image can become lost and the reader may not be able to direct their focus on the message of the image.
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I think this image is successful because it is a pretty dark photo, but the strong colors from the stoplights and building windows stand out and make the scene seem more dynamic.

I also agree with Rebecca that Peters discussion of the tonal values is fascinating. Rebecca mentions that the distribution of tonal values caught her eye when looking at the examples Peters gives in his article. I also was captured by his examples of the use of well-balanced tonal values because it makes the image more beautiful and pleasing to the eye. When the tones are too much from the same color family or too close in tonal range, the image may become blurry or have a cluttered feel. Peters states that when an image is most successful, it has the complete dynamic range- an even distribution of ratio from the brightest highlights to the deepest shadows. This makes complete sense to me because when an image can capture a full range of tonal values it makes the image come to life and seem more congruent to what our actual visual system can see. Image
This image is an example of a well executed full-range of tonal values. The image shows the extreme highlights as well as the extreme shadows that Peters talks about.

The last point about color that Peters discusses, which he actually mention second in between his depiction of only using a few strong colors and the exploitation of the dynamic range, is the complementary contrast. Peters goes on to say that the most beautiful effect is achieved if the complementary colors are the only strong colors. This makes sense to me as well because in my painting classes we discuss the use of complementary colors to harmonize a painting. Colors are compliments of each other because visually they balance out a composition. Peters exclaims that this rule actually helps defend the “foundation of aesthetics in cognitive neuroscience” because the human visual system “requests the complementary completion and generates it on its own authority if it is not present.” This means that if an image is missing the balance of complementary colors, our brains generate the right aesthetic in our heads and can then see that an image or painting is misrepresented because of the lack of the complementary relationship. This is interesting to me because this means that our brains know what is aesthetically pleasing because of the way we perceive color through our visual system.
Image
In this image, the complementary colors red and green are used to harmonize the red flower and the green background. This image is also aesthetically pleasing because the two strong colors used are also each other's complements.


http://www.mat.ucsb.edu/~g.legrady/acad ... itives.pdf

yunjikim
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by yunjikim » Wed Oct 20, 2010 10:54 pm

Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization discusses the significant role of images in visualization. Visual aesthetics - color, form, spatial organization, motion, depth, and human body - isolate or exaggerate a process of the visual system. Spacial organization emphasizes the use of the golden mean, texture, pattern, rhythm, repetition, and variation. It is profoundly technical and scientifically structures. Aesthetic primitives such as color and form is more beauty oriented. Thus, i was more intrigued by the use of color as an aesthetic primitive.
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According to Gabriele Peters, only a few strong colors are pleasing to the human eye; more than 3 strong colors in one image can lose the effect of beauty. Monochromaticity, a rule that purposefully chooses one main color, can achieve absolute aesthetic. Another rule of color is the complementary contrast. Complementary colors are pairs of colors from the opposite end of the color wheel. Though many aesthetically pleasing colors are of those that are similar to each other, complementary colors such as red and green or blue and orange, are also harmonious and compatible. The most beautiful effect, as Peters write, is often achieved "if the complementary colors are the only strong colors." The complementation and the contrast must be obvious.
Exploitation of dynamic range is also a supporting argument for the foundation of cognitive neuroscience. This discusses the effect of color and tone to the aesthetics: "An image is said to be aesthetic only if the full tonal range is present and, in addition, the tonal values are distributed in a well-balanced manner.
Image

gclassen
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Re: 4.Aesthetic Primitives of Images for Visualization

Post by gclassen » Thu Oct 21, 2010 8:41 am

Looking at the each person's post, one aspect of the aesthetic primitives that hasn't been mentioned is Motion. Motion is important in images because it represents "life and action." The article focuses on two main ways of expressing motion. The first is the technique of blur. This can be achieved through panning the camera numerous ways, or by actually capturing a moving object. Blur is "unsharpness in one direction" and usually the stronger the blur, the stronger the impression of speed. The second technique is the concept of incorporating distinct motion phases in the image....having a repeated image overlapping with slight changes in order to convey movement.

Blur:

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blurred-car by gclassen, on Flickr

Distinct Motion Phases:

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duchamp_nude by gclassen, on Flickr

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