Wk01 - Camera Obscura

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by pumhiran » Wed Oct 03, 2012 9:54 pm

As someone who love to take picture with a DSLR camera, I am very grateful to the inventor of Camera Obscura, Ibn al-Haitham, because his invention has a huge influence to the world of photography. From the beginning, Camera Obscura mainly purpose is to project what the lens capture on to the surface where a person can then trace what he or she sees on to the paper. The image that the Camera Obscura captures is flip upside down due to the light that pass through the small pin hole. The smaller the pin hole, the shaper and more accurate the image can be project.This process make it easy for someone to trace a picture. Camera Obscura is actually working the same way the human eyes do, so now we could understand why we could see something shaper when we squint my eyes.


Today, after a decade of developing a new tecnhology, the cameras that available to us are far more advance than the one our parents used to carry around(film camera, polaroid, disposable camera). However, the DSLR camera that we use today still use the concept of Camera Obscura where the image is capture through the lens and the mirror inside the camera project the image to the film or the digital microchips.



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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by erikshalat » Wed Oct 03, 2012 11:28 pm

The Camera Obscura (literally translated as “dark room”) is an early predecessor to the camera. The device was composed of a darkened chamber containing a mirror. The chamber had exterior holes where light would enter, reflect off the mirror, and project the image shown by the light through another hole. This tool was utilized by artists to capture images in their artworks more realistically, using a mirrored image as a reference. The first recorded instance of camera obscura being used goes all the way back to Ancient Greece, where the philosopher Aristotle noticed a reflected image being produced from a hole in a darkened room. It is possible that the camera obscura concept was used in the times of the cave men, to draw on cave walls.


From my personal experience, I have seen a camera obscura used in one of my favorite places on Earth- the Griffith Observatory. There is one pitch black room among the exhibits dedicated to projecting a complete 360 degree view of Los Angeles onto a large plate jutting out from the ground. It is especially beautiful at night, but in day the contrast between the darkness of the room and the brightness of sunny Los Angeles is stunning as well.


http://camera-obscura.co.uk/camera_obsc ... istory.asp
http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/115a/his ... scura.html

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by ebarragan » Thu Oct 04, 2012 8:47 am

Reflection on Camera Obscura
-Emmanuel Barragan
Camera obscura is one of the reasons photography and cameras exist today. Before they came into existence, people used camera obscura, which means dark room if you translate it into Italian. The concept was to be in the dark and look through a peephole, in which you will see an image projecting through. A diagonal beam of light go through the hole is what produces the image on the other side. This hole size can effect the images’ quality so it’s important to have it the perfect size.

The hole size used to be the only thing that controlled the quality of the image until the 16th century. That’s when the convex lens was added to the aperture. Then it improved once again when the mirror was added to it as well later on in the same century.

Camera obscura rooms came to popularity in the 19th century with images such as scenic views. Today, Camera obscura is making somewhat of a comeback. Not necessarily for the quality of the work but its history. More artists today are appreciating camera obscura and there is somewhat of a “revival of interest.” Old versions of it are growing in value and considered treasures while newer ones are currently being created.
http://www.mocp.org/collections/permane ... elardo.php

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by ashleyf » Thu Oct 04, 2012 12:28 pm

Camera Obscura translating from latin as “dark room”. Johannes Kepler, a german astronomer, was the first to use this phrase in the early 17th century. The Camera Obscura is a natural effect which if there is a small hole in a darkened room, the image produced would be inverted from the opposite wall. This is because the light rays reflect from the subject and cannot scatter through the tiny pinhole. The physics of the pinhole reflection dates back to a Chinese philosopher Mo-Ti in the 5th century BC. Mo-Ti called this a “collecting place”. Aristotle came to understand the principle of camera obscura when he viewed the crescent, eclipsed sun projected to the ground. Alhazen, the islamic scholar and scientist, gave a full account of principle which included experiments with lanterns. Many of the first camera obscuras were large rooms and compact boxes. Later, the camera obscuras were improves with lens which provided for better image quality. The development of the box design in early 1800’s had aided in the discover of photography.

http://www.historiccamera.com/cgi-bin/l ... ra_obscura

Camera Obscura was the prototype of the modern day camera. Camera Obscura evolved from being a large room to being a portable box which used lens and mirrors so that the picture was visible from outside the box. When lens technology improved, the image that was projected was able to be increased. By the end of the 20th century, there are now few camera obscuras remaining in the US.

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by juliacurtis » Sat Oct 06, 2012 3:27 pm

A camera obscura is one example of an optical instrument or device. These either process light waves in order to enhance an image, or they analyze light waves to determine more specific characteristics of the image. Currently in existence are many different optical devices: interferometer, photometer, polarimeter, reflectometer, refractometer, spectrometer, autocollimeter, vertometer, and others. Invented over a span of several centures, many different optical aides have come into existence. Along with the camera obscura, these include the camera lucida, the magic lantern, and the black mirror or claude glass. All rely on optics. Optical aids enhance accuracy. Hence, the camera obscura captured photos. Using similar design, the camera lucida was an optical device used by artists as a drawing aid. The device was patented in 1807 by William Hyde Wollaston, but speculation regarding whether he merely reinvented a device mentioned in Dioptrice by Johannes Kepler in 1611. Regardless, the device performs an optical superimposition of the subject being viewed, allowing the artist to simultaneously view the subject and the surface. The way the ‘technology’ works is similar to that of a double exposure in photography. The black mirror was also another device invented for drawing. It was a small, dark tinted and convex mirror that abstracted the subject reflected in it from its surroundings. This reduced and simplified the color and tonal range of the subject. These two devices took an understanding of the optics working in the camera obscura and used them in two newer devices that aided in drawing and not photography.
While optical aides enhance accuracy, depending on the specific device used, various distortions also result in the product. This gave rise to the Hockney-Falco thesis, which suggests that “advances in realism and accuracy in the history of Western art since the Renaissance were primarily the result of optical aides such as the camera obscura, the camera lucida, and curved mirrors, rather than solely due to the development of artistic technique and skill.” Arguments can be made both for and against this thesis. Regardless of who stands correct in that argument, optical devices such as those mentioned above also become incorporated in the development of performed art. Invented in the 17th century, the magic lantern or laterna magica, was a type of image projector. A concave mirror gathers and projects light through a slide with an image printed on it. As the light rays cross through a small opening inside they hit a lens. This enlarges the image and projects it onto the wall or screen the lantern is directed at. Following this invention, Phantasmagoria was invented in France in the late 18th century. This used the abilities of the magic lantern to create a type of theatre which used a modified magic lantern to “project frightening images onto walls or semi-transparent screens, frequently using rear projection.” Invented in the past, the camera obscura was also tinkered with by others in the past to give rise to new devices and uses.
Similarly, in the present day we can find different takes and recreations of the old invention. From left to right in the four images below we can see a camera obscura with the lens at the top, one made out of a cardboard box, a wooden one, and a metal one. The two images below those four show a girl who made a backpack to record what she saw as she was out walking similarly to why and how the camera obscura was constructed – to capture a record of the world as it was being experienced. Artists frequently revisit the old device to recreate modern interpretations. Buildings have been constructed that are themselves camera obscura devices. Also there is a frequency of lighthouses that have the devices at their top. Antique and modern models of all the devices discussed above can be found on the internet for purchase as well. Art continuously reminds us of our connection to the past.
Screen shot 2012-10-06 at 4.23.51 PM.png
http://wiki.arch.ethz.ch/twiki/pub/Fron ... bscura.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FakAB ... bscura.jpg

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by orourkeamber » Sun Oct 07, 2012 11:55 am

Amber O’Rourke
Art 130
George Legrady
The Camera Obscura
Camera Obscura is Latin meaning “dark room.” The earliest known discovery of such a device was first made during the 5th century. Chinese philosopher, Mo-Ti had allegedly created a darkened room in which the only light that penetrated space was through a small pinhole. The result of this was an upside down image reflected on the wall opposite the pinhole. “He called this darkened room a "collecting place" or the "locked treasure room."” (http://brightbytes.com/cosite/what.html)
Throughout centuries many others explored the Camera Obscura and its possible functions. Early on the Camera Obscuras consisted of a large room that’s primary function was to enable people to observe solar eclipses. Important improvements were made during the mid-15th century by Daniel Barbaro. Barbaro decided that if the pinhole were to be replaced by a lens one could control the device depth of focus.
It was not until the late 1600’s that the Camera Obscura went from being the size of an entire room to something more portable. In 1685 it was Johann Zahn who invented a box like version of the Camera Obscura, thus making it more excisable. The size modification resulted in a device that could easily be moved from one location to another. Some speculate that the improvement in paintings of the 16th century in way of composition and proportion may be evidence of the increased use of Camera Obscuras. During the 17th and 18th Camera Obscuras gained popularity. During this time it was common for professional as well as armature artists to use them as a drawing tool when sketching, thus, creating work that was not only easier to “map out” but also far more accurate to life.
Today the magic of the Camera Obscura still fascinates artists and captivates viewers. It is amazing how many results are found can be found via the internet of various people’s explorations and discoveries in creating their own Camera Obscuras. I was blown away by the intense beauty of some of the images and video footage that I found. It is amazing to me that something created so many centuries ago could still hold so much allure.

http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatu ... scura.html

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by rdouglas » Mon Oct 08, 2012 8:17 am

In researching the practical applications of the camera obscura before the advent of chemical photography, I came across detailed reports of this simple device being used as a popular drawing aid for artists in the 18th century. The artist Paul Sandby, among others was known to use a portable version of the camera obscura to accurately trace the fundamental perspective of a landscape or cityscape. Typically using it for the beginning of a composition, the artist would then translate the rest of the image through traditional drawing or painting. By the mid 18th century these devices common, manufactured items in Europe.

Caesar’s Tower and part of Warwick Castle, Paul Sandby (1730-1809) 1775 Watercolour.

More recently, in 2006, a group of artists know as The Legacy Project revealed the largest photograph ever created. At the former Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in Irvine, CA, Building #115, a retired jet hangar, was turned into the largest recorded camera obscura. In order to make the interior of the hangar as dark as possible, 24,000 square feet of six mil black viscuine, 200 large cans of spray foam gap filler, 8000 feet of two-inch wide black Gorilla tape and 40 cans of black spray paint were used. The aperture size of this camera was 6mm in diameter and the exposure time for the 28 feet x 108 feet photograph was 35 minutes.

The image is created by the world's largest camera, but it also may be one of the world's largest statements on photography, the role of photography and image in society.

Building #115 containing the projected image of the airfield outside.

The resulting negative photograph of the airfield.

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/d ... a-obscura/

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by sidrockafello » Mon Oct 08, 2012 10:15 am

Sid Miramontes
Art 130
Prof. Legrady
October 7, 2012
Camera Obscura
The difficulties with finding the absolute origin of photography would be excruciating, not to mention near impossible because no single answer to the question how and when photography began can be answered. There were many individuals who brought to life the process of photography, taking it from dark windowless rooms to paper, paper that can be seen by the masses. When a large scale phenomenon like photography hits the public with opportunity for others creativity to emerge then we lead into the realm of special effects and dream like quality images.
The first step in evolution for photography took place in Europe, this was known as camera obscrura. Camera obscura in Latin is translated into “Dark Chamber” (camera= chamber of room; obscura= dark). The camera obscura room which was a blacked out building with no windows, because in this room the only opening would be a tiny hole. Through this tiny hole a lens was fitted on that could refract the light and project it onto the far wall inside the dark room. The image on the inside was upside down and generally not very clear, however it was a useful tool for artists at the time. Take for example the ability for these artists to take the wall projection and produce a tracing which might then be developed into a painting. As the picture by Joseph Nicephore Niepce below can demonstrate, camera obscura images would look something like this; however when they were conceived they did not have the capabilities to transfer the image to paper which would have lead to other creative endeavors. With these new possibilities and a light box device, the portable version of a camera obscura would be extremely useful until photography on paper is to be imagined in the years to come.
Micheal F. O'brien& Norman Sibley: the Photographic Eye
Last edited by sidrockafello on Tue Oct 09, 2012 7:34 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by ttapscott » Mon Oct 08, 2012 8:20 pm

My initial research into the camera obscura lead me to various tourist destinations around the world where these optical devices had been erected for sight-seeing purposes. They seem to have been quite popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, however they seem to have lost they intrigue as technology has advanced. This was not what caught my eye, though. I was most interested in a BBC article about Johannes Vermeer’s possible use of the camera obscura in his work. I studied Vermeer in an art history class and got the chance to see many of his works in person, so I was interested in learning more about his practice. My other painters of his time are know to have used the device, Joshua Reynolds for example, but historians have no documentation of Vermeer’s use of the camera obscura.
According to the article there are several clues that suggest Vermeer’s use of the camera obscura. First, he uses what they call a “photographic perspective,” meaning at that time he had an uncanny ability to imitate perspective and create distance and space in a painting. Another reason for these claims comes from his extremely accurate reproductions of maps and globes in his portraits, at this time most reproductions at that time were made with camera devices. Also some of his images are painted in a softer, unfocused light that suggests optical distortion. Art historian Charles Seymour has determined that at least ten of his paintings have the been created in the exact same room, which suggests that Vermeer had a space in which he used a camera to project the image on to a back wall from which he could trace the scene. All ten of these paintings match the dimensions of the room, but in the reduced 1:6 scale that would have been projected on the wall. Seymour’s work offers strong evidence in favor of Vermeer’s use of a camera obscura in at least some of his work. While some Vermeer experts might view this as an attack on the painter’s genius this research only proves that artist made use of the technology of his time.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/em ... a_01.shtml

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Re: Wk01 - Camera Obscura

Post by jacobmiller » Tue Oct 09, 2012 6:45 am

A camera obscura is a camera that operates using a box with a pinhole on one side. The light that enters the pinhole enters at different angles and ends up projecting an upside down image of the outside of the box on the opposite interior wall. This peculiar light effect was discovered sometime near the fifth century B.C. Various discoveries allowed for improvements in camera obscuras such as adding a convex lens to the aperture and place a mirror on the opposite wall in order to reflect the image onto a viewing surface. Eventually this technique lead to the development of portable cameras that projected the images onto a material that could store the image. The first photographs.

Camera obscuras still exist today; some are personal projects, some are attractions, and others are used for photography. One modern photographer who uses camera obscuras is Abelardo Morell. He likes to turn rooms into camera obscuras and then take photos of the result. Here is my favorite of his work.

http://www.abelardomorell.net/photograp ... sc_69.html

I like the look so much I wish that I could do that to my own room and keep the image projected on the wall. Maybe you could coat the walls with the material used in photo paper and capture the image.

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